Location: KENYA

Please explain how has the organization implemented the Learning to Live Together Programme in systematic ways. (1000 words)

KNATCOM and WVK collaborated with Ministry of Education (MoE) in the implementation of LTLT in Kenya. The implementation process started off in September 2014 with the sensitization of policy level officials from MoE, Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) and the Teachers Service Commission (TSC). This paved way for a pilot project in Tana Delta Tana River County which targeted 13 primary schools. The Tana River County was selected for the implementation of the program because of the dramatic increase in ethnic violence in the region.Ethnic clashes between the Orma, wardei and Pokomo communities had resulted in deaths and displacements affecting hundreds of children in the whole county. The Orma and Wadeiare pastoralist while Pokomos are predominantly farmers. The conflict revolves around water and pasture.Over thirty schools were closed for a period of four months as a result of the crisis. Poverty levels in the area remain high and the academic performance in both primary and secondary schools is below average. The county has a low school enrollment rate, especially for girls. Primary enrollment is at 68%, pre-primary at 23%, and secondary at 5%; university and polytechnics enrollment is negligible. Gender related issues such as circumcision of girls and early marriages were prevalent. The pilot programme entailed training of ToTs drawn from TSC, MoE, KICD and the National Cohesion and Integration Commission (NCIC) from the national and county levels. This was followed by a training of 26 teachers from the target primary schools (two teachers per school).During the training it was observed that teacher had challenges contextualizing the content and activities from the LTLT manual. It was also observed that there was need to sensitize head teachers from the target schools to ensure good uptake of the programme at the school level. To respond to the challenges we (the implementing team) developed an LTLT Teacher Activity Book (TAB) for Kenya. A second training to orient the teachers on the TAB and support them to implementation at the school level was also organized. During this second training session, the teachers underwent intensive training on child participation as this was to be used in module 2 for the school projects. A back to back one day sensitization for head teachers from the targeted schools was also held. The implementation at the school level started with a baseline to establish the status of peace education initiatives in the beneficiary schools. The teachers then implemented module one sessions (lessons 1-7) for a period of one term. Amonitoring exercise was then carried out in all the participating schools culminating into a one day review workshop with the teachers.Thereafter teachers embarked on module two of the TAB and child led school/community projects. External monitoring of the project was then conducted by a consultant with the following deliverables 1) Evaluation report,2) Most Significant Change Stories from teachers and pupils. The successful implementation of the one year project climaxed into a celebration during the International World Day of Peace on 21st September, 2015. The forum provided an opportunity to showcase the gains made through project as well as sensitized the community on peace building. A final one day planning meetingwith the implementing teachers was held to lay down strategies for sustainability of the project. The LTLT in Tana Delta integrated a monitoringsystems to inform the programme implementation process. The teachers conducted an evaluation of their lessons after delivery either through smiles, and other activities as provided in the TAB. Teachers also filled reflection forms on their views on the lessons. External monitoring was provided by the then Moe Headquarter officers (TOTs). Reflection meetings also served to collect the views of the teachers on the programme. The Most Significant Change technique was used to identify successful stories. Following the success pilot of LTLT the team embarked on a number of strategies to mainstream LTLT in the curriculum, education policies and other programmes namely; 1) Sensitization of KICD leadership and curriculum developers to facilitate mainstreaming of LTLT into the new curriculum 2) One day policy dialogue meeting was held with senior MoE officials from technical departments to facilitate mainstreaming of LTLT in policies and technical programmes 3) Development of Positive Discipline Handbook and Facilitators Manual for teachers which contribute of eradication of violence against children at the school level. 4) Integration of LTLT in the programme on Prevention and Management of Emerging forms of Violence. 5) Expansion of the pilot programme to Baringo where 60 teachers from 30 primary schools and six education officers were trained on LTLT. This was coupled with a community /county leadership dialogue meeting and psycho social intervention in four schools that hosted displaced learners. 6) In collaboration with UNESCO IICBA the team initiated a peace building programme that adopts the LTLT themes and approaches 7) LTLT was also integrated into the Life skills training of KNATCOM Youth Forum members

How has the organization used the Ethics Education Framework to further mutual understanding and respect among people in their local contexts? (600 words)

The LTLT National Trainers of Trainers (ToTs) in Kenya underwent an experiential learning of the ethics education framework which helped them to reflect and internalize the values, concepts, education approach and methodologies of LTLT. This helped the facilitators to model the same to the teachers involved in the pilot project in Tana River. As stated above, the participating teachers hailed from a post conflict situation involving various neighboring communities in the county namely Orma, Wardei and Pokomo. The teachers consisted of the three ethnic communities and could not mix freely at the initial training of the pilot project. The trainers modeled the LTLT values of Empathy and respect, used the learning process that helped the teachers to explore and reflect on their situation. The trainers also used activities within the Kiosks especially module one to help the teachers develop self- awareness (Understanding self and others, acknowledging myself in relation to others, appreciating diversity and putting myself in the shoes of others). Some of the activities that promoted self- awareness included the star, the diminishing islands, the silent journey, analysis of the conflict in Tana delta and role-plays on their conflict. Teachers were also provided with opportunities for self- driven learning through role plays, and provision of space for learning such as through the silent journey. Though these experiences, the teachers gradually overcame their negative feelings towards each and interacted freely throughout the life of the project. One teacher stated: “To me, the journey at first was difficult. I was wondering how I could manage to deliver this message to the pupils. Then, I realized I have to encourage myself. I learnt to interact with other teachers, to mediate in pupils’ conflicts, and to handle my temper” At the beginning of the project, teachers appeared unexposed, exhibited low confidence levels and poor communication skills. Again through the trainers modeling of the LTLT values, use of participatory learning where all participants were involved and provision of safety where all could express themselves freely without being judged, a transformation was noted in individual teachers, their physical appearance improved, demonstrated higher levels of self- esteem and better communication skills. Baringo County experiences chronic inter community conflicts triggered by cattle rustling. The county is host to the Ilchamus, Tugen, Turkana and Picot communities. They are all pastoralists communities and fight over water and pasture. LTLT was introduced to respond to a conflict that pitted the Pokot against Tugen and Ilchamus. As a result of the conflict many Ilchamus and Tugen families were displaced including school going children. The displaced took refuge among the Tugen community and majority of the school going children and their teachers were hosted in schools devoid of boarding facilities. In some of schools the displaced children were not fully accepted resulting into strained relationships within the school community.Strong feelings of anger and resentment among teachers and learners were evident due to the inadequate resources. The introduction of the LTLT programme provided the teachers who were from the different communities with an opportunity to vent out their feeling in a safe learning environment. Through the LTLT learning activities such as the silent journey the teachers were able to reflect on the four core values and other aspects of the ethical education approach. This empowered them with effective attitudes and beliefs which was evident in their interpersonal relationships during the training. The training provided an opportunity for exploration of key concepts of LTLT such as human dignity, inter-cultural learning, spirituality and Ethics Education. The participants shared their traditions, music and dance. This helped the teachers to begin to appreciating each other and those who headed schools sheltering displaced learners expressed willingness to provide a safer environment (physically and psychologically) for the learners. The teachers were also equipped to roll out the LTLT programme at the school level through the training which specific activities from the TAB. At the national level the engagement with the curriculum developers facilitated the integration of LTLT into the curriculum reform process this is demonstrated by the strong emphasis of values in the new curriculum, it is dubbed as the ‘Value and Competence Based curriculum’. In addition one of the key outcomes of the curriculum is to produce an ethical, engaged and empowered learner. This is inline with the Ethics Education Framework which emphasizes values (Ethical), participatory learning (engaged learner) and skilled development (empowered). Subsequently the curriculum is expected to promote ethical relationship in and out of school culminating into a global citizenship culture

Explain how the implementation of the Learning to Live Together Programme has been sensitive to the local context. (600 words)

The implementation of LTLT in Kenya has been sensitive to the local context. The first activity entailed training of policy makers on LTLT to facilitate ownership at the management level in the Ministry of education. The choice of ToTs took into consideration inclusion of the main players in peace building through Education including the Ministry, TSC and National Cohesion and Integration Commission. The TOTs comprised a mix of Headquarters and County staff to facilitate effective involvement of the Headquarters and local level offices. All training sessions provided for an opportunity for context analysis (reality check). This helped the participants to analyze their situation in relation to the challenges related to peace, the causes and their proposed interventions. This also helped the facilitators to understand the world of the participants and the issues they were grappling with in relation to peace and mutual understanding such as conflicts at school level amongst learners, teachers and parents due to ethnic background, religious diversity, gender issues (Female genital mutilation and early marriages) and poverty. Teachers stated that they had challenges resolving issues among learners from different communities as it was open to misinterpretation. The LTLT endeavored to address this issues The trainings and implementation at school levelutilized local resources within the learning process such as songs, skits, music instruments and stories. Teachers and learners at the school level had opportunity for interfaith and intercultural exchanges based on the local context. The implementing team in Kenya developed a contextualized LTLT Teacher Activity Book for Kenya. The book helped customize the LTLT content and activities to the Kenyan context.It took into consideration the opportunities that teachers had to implement LTLT at the school level in regard to time. The TAB also adopted local examples and simplified the language to the level of the teachers.

How have the programs implemented impacted your organization, children and facilitators?

1. Organization Since independence, one of the Goals of education in Kenya is to promote National Unity. The Kenya constitution 2013 provides for the promotion of National values and Principle. There has been various attempts to operationalize this commitments at institutional level including the life skills Education and Peace education in Kenya. LTLT provided a concrete approach to addressing conflicts in Kenya and promoting appreciation of diversity. The LTLT has influenced the implementation of life skills and value based education programmes in the Ministry of education. The concepts of safe learning environment, self- driven and experiential learning as well as the learning process have been mainstreamed in Positive discipline initiative, the prevention and management of emerging forms of violence programme. The programme has also been adopted for intervention in emergency situations due to violent conflicts. It is against this view that LTLT was implemented in Baringo and it is proposed for use in 6 more Counties in the region. LTLT has provided tools that can directly be used at school level to promote peace and understanding. This have served to facilitate the implementation of the Education Sector Policy on Peace Education by the Ministry of education. Partners in the Education sector have adopted the use of LTLT in their interventions e.g. the World Vision Kenya used the LTLT approach to develop a training Manual on Life skills for their target schools. The LTLT provided an avenue for partnerships in the education sector. The initiative began with a collaboration between the Ministry of Education and its agencies including TSC. The UNESCO Regional office for Eastern Africa then joined the initiative. To upscale the imitative, the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) then worked with Arigatou International. Other institution that are currently working together in the implementation of LTLT initiatives include: national Cohesion and Integration Commission (NCIC),national Steering Committee on Peace Building(facilitates community dialogue), Kenya National Commission for UNESCO, World Vision Kenya, Lifeskills Promoters and Kenya Red Cross (provides Psych-social interventions in schools targeted for LTLT). 2. Children Enhanced self –awareness- Through LTLT activities, the children were able to develop better understanding of themselves and their connections with others. This boosted their confidence and self- esteem in General. Enhanced interpersonal relationships across ethnic, gender and religious divides; at the initial stages of the programme there was a relatively high level of animosity among children from different communities. One of the teachers reported that while presenting a session on forgiveness one of the children asked “How can I forgive snakes?” while referring to children from the other communities.However towards the end of the programme it was evident that children could interact freely. The pupils recognized the similarities among cultures and faiths. One child expressed her appreciation to have learnt about the mosque and share about the church to other children. The programme facilitated closer working relationships between boys and girls. This being a Muslim region the normal practice was that girls and boys conducted their affairs separately. Improved relationships between teachers and pupils; this was made possible through enhanced self- esteem, enhanced communication skills and attitude change. During monitoring, the implementers noted that teachers talked about how their teachers with excitement and they stated that they felt closer to the teachers who were implementing the programme Enhanced capacity for leadership and working in teams- Through the LTLT activities and the school project, the children’s leadership skills found expression. The programme was supported by the school presidents and deputy presidents (Kenyan schools have a children Government’s system) Capacity to address societal challenges in their locality-The children in Tana River County implemented various school based projects. Through the projects the children addressed immediate challenges at school and in the community. Some of the gains madefrom this projects include; • Children from the Pokomo community were the first members of the community to cross the Tana River (Which was the barrier between Pokomo and Orma) to seek out children who had dropped out from their school as a result of the conflict. They sought support from the local administration to travel to the orma villages. Due to their initiative, 6 children who had dropped out of school went back to Kibisu primary school. • Kipao Primary school created awareness against early marriages and rescued a girl from their school who had been married off. The girl went back to their school and attended the project celebration event. • BuraKofeira Primary school had low enrolment as children from one of the communities could not enroll in the as members of their community were attacked in the school while taking shelter during the conflict. According to their traditions, they could not go near a place where the blood of their kinsmen was shed. Through the LTLT programme, Head teacher organized for a cleansing ceremony so that the children could enroll in the school. • Lazima primary school reduced bullying in the schoolespecially during meals time. Capacity for Enjoyment of learning- The LTLT activities provided an opportunity for the children to enjoy themselves Improved performance-Majority of the classes involved in the LTLTinitiatives improved in the academic performance. This was associated to the increased confidence and self -efficacy promoted by the Programme. 3. Facilitators Enhanced capacity to work with vulnerable children and teachers in difficult circumstances- The programme targeted the vulnerable children in Kenya as they are from the hard to reach regions and in difficult circumstances (Affected by conflicts/Displaced).The LTLT Programme equipped facilitators to work with teachers and learners in these regions. Improved capacity of Facilitators to design and implement value-based interventions. The ethics Education framework presented to the facilitators a concrete approach to operationalize ethics and value based learning. Improved Interaction with others is including children: Findings suggest that the training allowed facilitators to discover personal skills to improve their interaction with others. As stated by one of the teachers at the end of the basic training workshop: “I learnt that we all are learners and this is what I will try to apply in the classroom.” Improved pedagogical approaches; despite the fact that most of the facilitators were trained teachers they mainly appreciated the learning process presented by LTLT and the concepts of safe learning environment, Self- directed learning and collaborative learning. Enhanced capacity to facilitate children/youth led projects- The facilitators developed skills of facilitating higher level child participation. This entailed challenging them to move from the comfort of being the centre of activities to allowing children to take a centre stage. One teachers trained stated that; “I have learnt that the three elements of Ownership, Participation, and Empowerment are crucial for the project’s success.”

How has the implementation of the Learning to Live Together Programme helped nurture interfaith and/or intercultural learning towards bridging divides in society? (600 words)

LTLT has facilitated interfaith and intercultural learning by recognizing the fact that we have religious and cultural diversity in Kenya. Nominations to participate in different workshops and meetings took into consideration this reality as much as was possible. This provided rich engagements during the trainings and meetings. The trainings included a session on interfaith and intercultural engagements either through a world café, group work or gallery walks. There are very few opportunities for interfaith conversations and these opportunities were really appreciated by both the facilitators and the children. Opportunities for different communities to present their culture, music and dance were very enriching and facilitated appreciation of diversity. This included such activities as the drumming circles and cultural evening. The in-depth exploration of the 4 values in LTLT provided a convergent point for all ethnic groups and religions. This facilitated closer working relations.

Please give some examples to show your resourcefulness, creativity and synergy in working with different stakeholders to implement and sustain ethics education programs. (600 words)

As earlier stated, Tana River is one of the regions with low education indicators in Kenya. The teaching force in the region is not as qualified and experienced as the average teacher in Kenya. Implementing LTLT in this region called for adaptation capacities, designing and redesigning of the programme approach, strong support to the teachers and forging close collaboration with education actors at the national and county levels. The cost of implementation is also high due to the vast region and poor infrastructure. The programme in the Tana River County entailed over seven face to face interactions with the teachers either through training, reflection meetings or monitoring. This ensured continuous engagement with the teachers. As a result, the teachers felt supported and invested sustained energy in the implementation of the programme. To cut on the implementing team gave up the rates of allowances provided by government and implemented the programme on a modest subsistence allowance. Another strategy that has been used to implement and sustain ethics education in Kenya is through mainstreaming in the curriculum. The overall wellbeing of a child is critical for the survival of any society. Children like adults are faced with a myriad of challenges and issues owing to the legal, technological, social, cultural and economic dynamics in society.Values are defined as standards that guide an individual on how to respond or behave in a given circumstance. Our values influence how we feel, act and make choices in life. The nurturing of values will facilitate the achievement of the curriculum reforms’ vision, particularly with respect to molding ethical citizens. Curriculum is used as a channel through which Ethics education can be enhanced for sustainable peace in the world. The reformed curriculum in Kenya adopts a multi-dimensional approach in addressing Ethics education. In order to prepare the future generations to be creative and responsible global citizens and to foster Ethics education, teaching and learning activities in formal and non–formal education settings must be facilitated. The vision of the Basic Education Curriculum Reforms Framework (BECRF) is to enable every Kenyan to become an engaged, empowered and ethical citizen. Its Mission is to nurture every learners potential. This will be achieved by providing every Kenyan learner with world class standards in the skills and knowledge that they deserve, and which they need in order to thrive in the 21st century. This shall be accomplished through the provision of excellent teaching, school environments and resources and a sustainable visionary curriculum that provides every learner with seamless, competency based high quality learning that values every learner. The first pillar of the BECF is Values. KICD is adopting a Value based Approach to Education in the reformed curriculum. Value-based Education (VbE) is an approach to teaching that works with values. It creates a strong learning environment that enhances academic attainment, and develops students’ social and relationship skills that last throughout their lives. VBE equips students with social capacities that help them work with, and relate to others effectively. It provides them with the self-esteem and confidence to explore and develop their full potential. In view of this 65 curriculum developers across all learning areas have undertaken the Basic LTLT Training which was conducted in two phases in 2016. The training of curriculum developers was aimed at enabling them to mainstream ethics education in the reformed curriculum in Kenya.

How have you supported child and youth-led actions / projects based on the Learning to Live Together Programme?

Under the Tana River Pilot project, the programme supported 10 school based programmes that were child led and implemented by the schools in collaboration with the community members. The projects were designed to address immediate challenges in the school or the community as shown below: School Project Imani Primary School Inter-faith Campaign Kibusu Primary School Bringing children back to school Riketta Primary School Bringing children back to school, Focusing on siblings, neighbors and community at large Lazima Primary School Dealing with bullying Semikaro Primary School Peace Campaign Onwardei Primary School Establishment of a school vegetable garden Kipao Primary School Campaing against early marriages Bura Kofeira Primary School Back to school campaign Birissa Primary School Rights and Responsibilities of the child ‘Mapatano’ Garsen Primary school Inter-faith campaign & Promoting good time management -‘Jikakamue’
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